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Pharmacological Index

Blood and Blood formation

Blood is a constantly circulating fluid providing the body with nutrition, oxygen, and waste removal. Blood is mostly liquid, with numerous cells and proteins suspended in it, making blood ""thicker"" than pure water. The average person has about 5 liters (more than a gallon) of blood. A liquid called plasma makes up about half of the content of blood. Plasma contains proteins that help blood to clot, transport substances through the blood, and perform other functions. Blood plasma also contains glucose and other dissolved nutrients. About half of blood volume is composed of blood cells: • Red blood cells, which carry oxygen to the tissues. • White blood cells, which fight infections. • Platelets, smaller cells that help blood to clot. Blood is conducted through blood vessels (arteries and veins). Blood is prevented from clotting in the blood vessels by their smoothness, and the finely tuned balance of clotting factors."


Erythropoietin is an essential hormone for red cell production. Without it, definitive erythropoiesis, the process of red cell production, does not take place. Under hypoxic conditions, the kidney will produce .....


"Haematinics are drug preparations that are used in the treatment of anaemias. Anaemia is a clinical condition in which there is a decrease in the number of Red Blood Cells or .....

Plasma expanders

Plasma expanders are agents that have relatively high molecular weight and boost the plasma volume by increasing the osmotic pressure. They are used to treat patients who have suffered hemorrhage .....

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