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Skin

"The skin is the largest organ of the body, with a total area of about 20 square feet. The skin protects us from microbes and the elements, helps regulate body temperature, and permits the sensations of touch, heat, and cold. Skin has three layers: The epidermis, the outermost layer of skin, provides a waterproof barrier and creates our skin tone. The dermis, beneath the epidermis, contains tough connective tissue, hair follicles, and sweat glands. The deeper subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) is made of fat and connective tissue. The skin’s color is created by special cells called melanocytes, which produce the pigment melanin. Melanocytes are located in the epidermis."

Skin Infection

A skin infection is an infection of the skin. Infection of the skin is distinguished from dermatitis, which is inflammation of the skin, but a skin infection can result in .....

Itching sensation

Pain and itch have very different behavioral response patterns. Pain evokes a withdrawal reflex which leads to retraction and therefore a reaction trying to protect an endangered part of the .....

Pruritus vulval

Pruritus vulvae means itchy vulva. The vulva is the area of skin just outside the vagina. Most women have a slight vulval itch from time to time. However, pruritus vulvae .....

Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a common skin disease that affects the life cycle of skin cells. Psoriasis causes cells to build up rapidly on the surface of the skin, forming thick silvery .....

Skin allergy

Skin allergy is an over-reaction of the skin to a contact with particular substance that your skin is sensitive or allergic to, which is normally harmless to the non-allergic person. .....

Fungal infection

Superficial fungal infestations occur as infections of the skin and nails. They are caused by fungi that are everywhere around us. Fungi thrive in warm, moist conditions. Fungal infection of .....

Eczema

Eczema is also known as atopic dermatitis, or atopic eczema (the most common form of eczema). Atopic eczema mainly affects children, but it can continue into adulthood or start later .....

Atopic allergy

Atopic allergy is a very common, often long-lasting skin disease that affects a large percentage of the world's population. It is a special type of allergic hypersensitivity that includes a .....

Skin Irritation

Skin irritation is the inflammation of the this region of the body usually as a result of a reaction to an allergy or sustained damage to the cell-lining. It can .....

Skin Ulcer

Skin ulcers are open sores that are often accompanied by the sloughing-off of inflamed tissue. Skin ulcers can be caused by a variety of events, such as trauma, exposure to .....

Skin Pigmentation

Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Skin cells give your skin color by making a substance called melanin. When these cells become damaged or .....

Abrasion

An abrasion is a wound caused by superficial damage to the skin, no deeper than the epidermis. It is less severe than a laceration, and bleeding, if present, is minimal. .....

Acne

Acne is a disease that involves the oil glands of the skin. It is not dangerous, but can leave skin scars. Your skin has pores (tiny holes) which connect to .....

Tinea

Tinea is the name of a group of diseases caused by a fungus. Types of tinea include ringworm, athlete's foot and jock itch. These infections are usually not serious, but .....

Gangrene

Gangrene refers to the death of body tissue due to a lack of blood flow or a bacterial infection. Gangrene most commonly affects the extremities, including your toes, fingers and .....

Frostbite

Frostbite is, literally, frozen body tissue — usually the skin, but sometimes deeper tissue — and must be handled carefully to prevent permanent tissue damage. The varying degrees of frostbite .....

Bed sores

Bedsores — also called pressure sores or pressure ulcers — are injuries to skin and underlying tissues that result from prolonged pressure on the skin. Bedsores most often develop on .....

Boil

A boil is a skin infection that starts in a hair follicle or oil gland. At first, the skin turns red in the area of the infection, and a tender .....

Bruise

A bruise, also called a contusion, forms because the soft tissues of your body have been bumped. Some people bruise easily, whereas others may have tougher skin tissue. When these .....

Bursitis

Bursitis is the inflammation or irritation of the bursa. The bursa is a sac filled with lubricating fluid, located between tissues such as bone, muscle, tendons, and skin, that decreases .....

Herpes

Herpes is a viral disease from the herpesviridae family caused by both Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). Infection with the herpes virus is categorized into .....

Chickenpox

Chickenpox (varicella) was once considered a rite of passage for most children. Before routine chickenpox vaccination, virtually everyone had been infected by the time they reached adulthood, sometimes with serious .....

Chloasma

A patchy brown or dark brown skin discoloration that usually occurs on face and may result from hormonal changes, as in pregnancy and during the administration of estrogen containing oral .....

Corns

A corn is a specially shaped callus of dead skin that usually occurs on thin or glabrous (hairless and smooth) skin surfaces, especially on the dorsal surface of toes or .....

Drug rash

A drug rash is an adverse drug reaction of the skin. Most drug-induced cutaneous reactions are mild and disappear when the offending drug is withdrawn. Drugs can also cause hair .....

Ecthyma

Ecthyma is an ulcerative pyoderma of the skin caused by bacteria such as Pseudomonas (the most common isolate), Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Because ecthyma extends into the dermis, it .....

Leprosy

Leprosy is a disease that has been known since biblical times. It causes skin sores, nerve damage, and muscle weakness that gets worse over time. Leprosy is caused by the .....

Hyperkeratinization

Hyperkeratinization is a disorder of the cells lining the inside of a hair follicle. It is the normal function of these cells to detach or slough off (desquamate) from the .....

Ichthyosis

Ichthyosis is an inherited skin disorder in which dead skin cells accumulate in thick, dry scales on your skin's surface. The scales of ichthyosis vulgaris, sometimes called fish scale disease .....

Impetigo

Impetigo, one of the most common skin infections among kids, usually produces blisters or sores on the face, neck, hands, and diaper area. This contagious superficial skin infection is generally .....

keloid

Keloids can be considered to be "scars that don't know when to stop." A keloid, sometimes referred to as a keloid scar, is a tough heaped-up scar that rises quite .....

Nappy rash

Nappy rash is a common condition thought to affect up to a third of nappy-wearing babies at any given time. It causes your baby's skin to become sore and irritated .....

Necrobiosis lipoidica

Necrobiosis lipoidica is a disorder of collagen degeneration with a granulomatous response, thickening of blood vessel walls, and fat deposition. The main complication of the disease is ulceration, usually occurring .....

Paresthesia

A paresthesia is an abnormal sensation of tingling, numbness, or burning. Paresthesias are usually felt in the hands, feet, arms, or legs, but can be felt anywhere. The sensation is .....

Paronychia

Paronychia is a skin infection that occurs around the nails. Paronychia is fairly common. It is usually caused by injury to the area -- for example, from biting off or .....

Pellagra

Pellagra is a disease that affects your digestive system, skin, and nerves, resulting in dermatitis, diarrhea, and mental disorders. The most common cause of pellagra is not having enough niacin .....

Pelvic disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection that passes from the vagina through neck of the womb (cervix), the womb (uterus) and up to the Fallopian tubes. The ovaries are .....

Phototoxicity

Phototoxicity is a chemically induced skin irritation requiring light (photoirritation or photosensitivity). The skin response resembles an exaggerated sunburn. The involved chemical may enter into the skin by topical administration .....

Ringworm

Ringworm is a skin infection due to a fungus. Often, there are several patches of ringworm on your skin at once. Ringworm is common, especially among children. However, it may .....

Scabies

Scabies is an easily spread skin disease caused by a very small species of mite. Scabies is found worldwide among people of all groups and ages. It is spread by .....

Scleroderma

Scleroderma (skleer-oh-DUR-muh) is a group of rare, progressive diseases that involve the hardening and tightening of the skin and connective tissues — the fibers that provide the framework and support .....

Subcutaneous absces

The subcutaneous tissue is composed of loose connective tissue and fat. It lies underneath the skin and above the muscles and the bones. Infections often develop in this layer which .....

Sweat gland disease

Sweat gland diseases can be divided into two groups: those affecting the eccrine sweat glands, and those affecting the apocrine sweat glands. .....

Sycosis vulgaris

Sycosis vulgaris is a cutaneous condition characterized by a chronic infection of the chin or bearded region. The irritation is caused by a deep infection of hair follicles, often by .....

Urticaria

Urticaria, commonly referred to as hives, is the most frequent dermatologic disorder seen in the ED. It appears as raised, well-circumscribed areas of erythema and edema involving the dermis and .....

Vitiligo

Vitiligo is a condition in which your skin loses melanin, the pigment that determines the color of your skin, hair and eyes. Vitiligo occurs when the cells that produce melanin .....

Wart

Warts are small, usually painless growths on the skin caused by a virus called human papillomavirus (HPV). Most, but not all, are generally harmless. Warts can be disfiguring and embarrassing. .....

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