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Brain

The brain is a pinkish-grey, wrinkled organ that fills the skull — looking, for all the world, like a huge walnut. It is hard to believe, from its appearance, that this ugly lump of jelly contains the mechanisms of thought, perception, will, and consciousness, that it is the seat of our personality. Its 100,000 million nerve cells, each with an average of 100,00 connections from other neurons, makes the human brain the most complicated and least understood object in the known universe. The vertebrate brain is the large anterior portion of the central nervous system . The "cranial vault" of the skull encases the brain in most vertebrates. In invertebrates, the enlarged and specialized anterior ganglion of the central nervous system is often referred to as a brain, although not all scientists regard it as a true brain.

Dementia

Dementia is the loss of mental functions such as thinking, memory, and reasoning that is severe enough to interfere with a person's daily functioning. Dementia is not a disease itself, .....

Anxiety

There are many types of anxiety disorders that include panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder. Anxiety is a normal human .....

Hypnotic

Hypnotic drugs are a class of psychoactives whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia, and in surgical anesthesia. When used in .....

Depression

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can have a negative effect on a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings, world view, and physical well-being. Depressed people .....

Alzhimer's dementia

Dementia is the loss of mental functions such as thinking, memory, and reasoning that is severe enough to interfere with a person's daily functioning. Dementia is not a disease itself, .....

Autism

Autism is known as a complex developmental disability. Experts believe that Autism presents itself during the first three years of a person's life. The condition is the result of a .....

Psychiatric disorders

The term psychiatric disorder means a mental disorder or illness that interferes with the way a person behaves, interacts with others, and functions in daily life. Psychiatric disorders are also .....

Cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder that affects muscle tone, movement, and motor skills (the ability to move in a coordinated and purposeful way). CP is usually caused by brain .....

Cerebral edema

Cerebral edema or cerebral œdema is an excess accumulation of water in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain. Brain swelling goes by many names: 1. Brain edema 2. Elevated intracranial .....

Cerebral concussion

Concussion is a trauma-induced change in mental status, with confusion and amnesia, and with or without a brief loss of consciousness. A concussion occurs when the head hits or is .....

Vigilance disorder

Primary disorder of vigilance is a term for a syndrome that includes poor attention and concentration as well as difficulties staying awake. The term is not recognized as an official .....

Cerebral insufficiency

Cerebral vascular insufficiency is defined as insufficient blood flow to the brain. The most common cause of decreased blood flow is atherosclerosis of the arteries that supply blood to the .....

Cognitive dysfunction

Cognitive dysfunction (also known as brain fog) is the loss of intellectual functions such as thinking, remembering, and reasoning of sufficient severity to interfere with daily functioning. Patients with cognitive .....

Concentration impairment

Concentration difficulty is a decreased ability to focus your thoughts on something. Concentration difficulties can be related to difficulty staying awake, impulsiveness, intrusive thoughts or concerns, overactivity, or inattention. They .....

Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a common and diverse set of chronic neurological disorders characterized by seizures. Some definitions of epilepsy require that seizures be recurrent and unprovoked, but others require only a .....

Delirium

Delirium is a serious disturbance in a person's mental abilities that results in a decreased awareness of one's environment and confused thinking. The onset of delirium is usually sudden, often .....

Dystonia

Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder, in which sustained muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures. The disorder may be hereditary or caused by other factors such .....

Pseudobulbar affect

Pseudobulbar affect (PBA), emotional lability, labile affect or emotional incontinence refers to a neurologic disorder characterized by involuntary crying or uncontrollable episodes of crying and/or laughing, or other emotional displays. .....

Encephalitis

Encephalitis is acute inflammation (swelling up) of the brain resulting either from a viral infection or when the body's own immune system mistakenly attacks brain tissue. The most common cause .....

Hyperesthesia

Hyperesthesia (or hyperaesthesia) is a condition that involves an abnormal increase in sensitivity to stimuli of the sense. "When a non-noxious stimulus causes the sensation of pain the area will .....

Hyperactivity

Hyperactivity means there is too much muscle activity. Hyperactivity is also used to describe a situation when a part of your body is too active, such as when a gland .....

Hypokinesia

Hypokinesia refers to decreased bodily movement. It is associated with basal ganglia diseases (such as Parkinson's disease), mental health disorders and prolonged inactivity due to illness, amongst other diseases. .....

Hypomania

Hypomania is a state of mind, mood and behavior that may express itself as unusual gaiety, excitement, flamboyance or irritability. In addition, hypomania is accompanied by such behaviors as restlessness, .....

Hypopituitarism

Hypopituitarism is a condition in which the pituitary gland does not produce normal amounts of some or all of its hormones. The pituitary gland is a small structure that is .....

Intellectual disability

Intellectual disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills. .....

Memory loss

Memory loss (amnesia) is unusual forgetfulness. You may not be able to remember new events, recall one or more memories of the past, or both. Normal aging may cause some .....

Migraine

A migraine is a common type of headache that may occur with symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or sensitivity to light. In many people, a throbbing pain is felt only .....

Down syndrome

Down syndrome (DS), also called Trisomy 21, is a condition in which extra genetic material causes delays in the way a child develops, both mentally and physically. The physical features and .....

Narcolepsy

Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder caused by the brain's inability to regulate sleep-wake cycles normally. People with narcolepsy often experience disturbed nocturnal sleep and an abnormal daytime sleep pattern, .....

Neurosis

Neurosis is a class of functional mental disorders involving distress but neither delusions nor hallucinations, whereby behavior is not outside socially acceptable norms. It is also known as psychoneurosis or .....

OCD

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by unreasonable thoughts and fears (obsessions) that lead you to do repetitive behaviors (compulsions). With obsessive-compulsive disorder, you may realize that your .....

Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and the most common movement disorder. It is characterized by progressive loss of muscle control, which leads to trembling of the .....

Radiation syndrome

radiation syndrome (ARS), also known as radiation poisoning, radiation sickness or radiation toxicity, is a constellation of health effects which present within 24 hours of exposure to high amounts of .....

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a serious brain disorder that distorts the way a person thinks, acts, expresses emotions, perceives reality, and relates to others. People with schizophrenia -- the most chronic and .....

Sedation

Sedation is the act of calming by administration of a sedative. A sedative is a medication that commonly induces the nervous system to calm. The process of sedation has two .....

Sleep disturbances

A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal. Some sleep disorders are serious enough to interfere with normal physical, mental .....

Stress

Stress typically describes a negative condition that can have an impact on one’s mental and physical well-being, but it is unclear what exactly defines stress and whether or not stress .....

stroke

A stroke is a condition in which the brain cells suddenly die because of a lack of oxygen. This can be caused by an obstruction in the blood flow, or .....

Trigeminal neuralgia

Trigeminal neuralgia is a chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, which carries sensation from your face to your brain. If you have trigeminal neuralgia, even mild stimulation of .....

Brain tumor

A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of cells within the brain, which can be cancerous or non-cancerous (benign). It is defined as any intracranial tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled .....

Vertigo

Vertigo is a feeling of spinning (whirling) or falling down when there are no actual body movements. It is a symptom of a balance disorder that occurs due to disturbances .....

Wilson's disease

Wilson's disease is an inherited disorder that causes too much copper to accumulate in your liver, brain and other vital organs. Another term for Wilson's disease is hepatolenticular degeneration. Copper plays .....

Pheochromocytoma

A pheochromocytoma (fe-o-kro-mo-si-TOE-muh) is a rare, usually noncancerous (benign) tumor that develops in the core of an adrenal gland. You have two adrenal glands, one just above each of your .....

Alertness impairment

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